History

The Day the Chesapeake Bay Went Dry

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January 2014
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By
Susan
Elnicki Wade

Beer riots in Baltimore federal agents attacked with bricks and a jar of mayonnaise  bottles of moonshine stashed at the bottom of oyster bushels  These are just a few snapshots of the mayhem that ensued on the Chesapeake Bay during Prohibition. On Jan. 16, 1920, booze was banned in America. Beer, wine, champagne, rum and other distilled spirits became illegal. The Chesapeake Bay, along with the entire United States, checked in for a 13-year stint in rehab.. The 18th Amendment allowed a few exceptions. Places of worship could pour wine for religious ceremonies. You could stomp grapes in the bathtub and make wine at home, as long as you didn't sell any of it. And if you felt sick, doctors could prescribe alcohol for medicinal purposes from liquor-dispensing pharmacies. This loophole grew so popular that by March 1920, 70,000 whiskey prescriptions in Maryland and Washington D.C., were filled. Otherwise, happy hour was legally over.

The movement to make America sober was championed by the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), The Anti-Saloon League, Methodist ministers and others who blamed demon rum for a menagerie of social ills.

For centuries, America's tradition of drinking beer and wine seemed manageable, but the influx of hard liquor caused a dramatic spike in alcoholism in the 19th century. Between 1800 and 1830, average annual intake was more than five gallons of hard stuff per American, a drinking level nearly three times that of late  20th- century America. Foreigners visiting the United States  noted with disdain that the whole country seemed to be on a national binge, says Eric Mills in Chesapeake Rumrunners of the Roaring Twenties.

Catch Me If You Can

Some people embraced a respite from rum. Others believed that the government had no business dictating morality or lifestyles. The Chesapeake Bay's 11,600 miles of shoreline -- with all its remote coves and inlets -- was a perfect setting for a cat-and-mouse game with Prohibition officers. When federal dry agents shut down saloons, speakeasies popped up all around the Bay.

Hundreds of moonshine stills appeared along the Eastern Shore, Southern Maryland and Virginia's Tidewater region. White lightning and other intoxicating liquors were secretly brewed in the Chesapeake countryside. Some was kept for local consumption, but thousands of gallons of hooch were transported to thirsty city dwellers. It's rumored that more than half of the Bay's population joined the moonshine bonanza during Prohibition.

The home-grown booze industry paled in comparison to imports from abroad. Americans never lost their taste for French champagne, British gin, Caribbean rum or Scotch whiskey. Ships from around the globe lined up along the Atlantic coastline from Virginia to New England, cautiously floating three miles offshore in international waters along a stretch called Rum Row. Sea vessels' bellies were filled with cases of fine imports, and crews eagerly awaited smaller speedboats to transport the liquid gold to shore. When they made it through the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, rumrunners disappeared amid the isolated marshlands and hidden coves to unload their bounty.

Resourceful Chesapeake watermen souped up their engines to outrace the Coast Guard and rigged boats for carrying contraband. Fishermen hid Mason jars of booze in bushels under mounds of oysters or built false bottoms in boats to stash cases of hooch.

Say Goodbye to Southern Comfort

Even though Prohibition was the law of the land, the country was deeply divided over alcohol. Teetotalers heralded the Noble Experiment as the nation's salvation. Others refused to hand over their martini shakers. Attitudes varied from state to state, and the differences were clearly illustrated in the Bay's border states of Maryland and Virginia.

Along with 17 other states, Virginia went dry in 1916 and outlawed liquor sales four years before the rest of the country. Norfolk tried to stay wet, and many taverns stayed open, because they didn't feel the federal enforcement pinch until the 18th Amendment was enacted nationwide. When the clock struck midnight on Jan. 19, 1920, Norfolk's streets were flooded with WCTU leaders and other anti-alcohol revelers celebrating their victory.

Almost 15,000 jubilant teetotalers joined a parade spearheaded by a flamboyant Evangelist preacher named Billy Sunday, who had fought against demon rum for decades. Sunday marched through the town next to a 20-foot-long black coffin symbolizing the death of John Barleycorn. When the parade ended at a Methodist church, Sunday worked the crowd into a frenzy by jumping on top of the coffin, singing hymns and delivering a fire-and-brimstone sermon that rocked the rafters.

The next day, Virginia gave the official last call for alcohol. Norfolk's 115 bars were closed. Saloon signs and billboards promoting booze were pulled down and destroyed. Virginia would have its share of rumrunners, bootleggers and speakeasies, but as far as the state was concerned, alcohol in the Commonwealth was dead.

Naughty Bohemians Stand Their Ground

Maryland was a horse of a different color. As a young colony, its leaders tried to curb alcohol consumption, and in 1642 public drunkenness was rewarded with a fine of a 100-pound bag of tobacco. Three centuries later, when Congress tried to impose national anti-alcohol rules, Marylanders replied with a collective "mind your own business." Maryland was the only state that refused to ratify Prohibition and allocate funds to enforce the new laws.

Simply stated: Maryland was defiantly wet. Resistance to Prohibition started at the top in Annapolis and trickled down to police forces and average citizens. Alfred Richie, the four-term governor from 1920 to 1935, wasn't much of a drinker, but he believed the federal government had overstepped its bounds and was stomping on his state's rights. Nationally recognized for his anti-temperance views, he scoffed at squandering Maryland's funds or backing the 18th Amendment just because the feds wanted to eliminate booze. Law enforcement was lackluster at best. Tavern operators greased local policemen's palms so they'd turn a blind eye to thriving booze businesses.

Baltimore, the wettest of all cities, became a hotbed for importing alcohol. Speakeasies flourished in every neighborhood. The Horse You Came in On Saloon, which is still serving spirits in Fells Point, boasts that it operated before, during and after Prohibition. "The Horse was located next door to an alcohol-dispensing pharmacy back then," says General Manager, Trent O'Connor. "After people picked up their 'medicinal' Jack Daniels at the drug store, they'd walk through a secret door into our speakeasy for more liquid refreshment." John Stevens Restaurant, just a few blocks away, has been a favorite watering hole for sailors and watermen since the early 1800s. It stayed open throughout Prohibition by selling oysters and serving "soft drinks" to parched patrons.

Baltimore citizens were especially prickly toward Prohibition agents and infamous for disrupting enforcement efforts. A New York Times headline from March 1927 reported "MOB IN BALTIMORE ATTACKS DRY AGENTS: Crowd of 500 Wields Axes on Autos and Hurls Bricks at 16 Federal Men on Raid." A rowdy South Baltimore crowd swarmed the officers' cars, but no one was injured or arrested. "Only three agents were struck two by stones and one by a jar of mayonnaise which broke and injured chiefly his personal appearance."

Happy Days Are Here Again

While Baltimore's resistance to Prohibition took on a unique flair, the entire country shared its concerns about this great social experiment. Corruption ran rampant across the nation, and a sharp rise in alcohol consumption indicated that American temperance was a flop. The 18th Amendment was repealed on Dec. 5, 1933 -- just in time for Christmas festivities. America resumed its bottoms-up traditions, and Chesapeake watermen went back to carrying crabs and oysters in their boats.

Let's Party Like It's 1929!

During Prohibition, Americans were divided between dry and wet lifestyles. Scofflaws and other rule breakers invented delectable cocktails that are still worth sipping today. Here are three of that era's popular libations and the story behind their creation:The Gin Rickey - Gin was among the favorite intoxicating liquors. The Gin Rickey was first made in the 1880s with bourbon at Shoomaker's Bar in Washington, D.C., and was named after Democrat lobbyist Colonel Joe Rickey. While F. Scott Fitzgerald was writing "The Great Gatsby," he found inspiration in this crisp cocktail.

  • 2 oz. dry gin
  • ½ fresh lime squeezed and
  • dropped in the glass
  • 5 oz. soda water or sparkling mineral water

The Sidecar - During Prohibition, outrageous was the norm, and normal was so old-fashioned. The Sidecar epitomizes a grand entrance at a gin joint. It's named after a WWI army captain who liked to arrive at his local speakeasy in a motorcycle sidecar. Bet he also puffed on a Cuban cigar. Shake this mixture well with cracked ice and strain into a chilled, sugar-rimmed cocktail glass.

  • 3 oz. cognac
  • 2 oz. Cointreau, Grand Mariner or other
  • orange liqueur
  • 1 oz. lemon juice

The Bee's Knees - The Roaring '20s gave birth to a host of phrases that toasted the wild side of nature. The superlative Bee's Knees was reserved for flappers and dappers who had reached the height of excellence -- and mixed a little sting with their charm. Be sure to shake well with ice and serve in a chilled glass.

  • ½ jigger of gin
  • 1 teaspoon honey
  • 1 teaspoon lemon juice
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There Once Was a Basket from Nantucket
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For many reasons, boat lovers and landlubbers love Nantucket. The well-known island 30 miles off the Massachusetts coast has great maritime history, picturesque scenery, unspoiled beaches, boutique shopping, a nice marina and seafood galore.It's also home to a unique basketmaking tradition developed in the second half of the 19th century by manly men who manned the lightships that warned of dangerous waters around the island.Today, the Nantucket baskets they wove are ubiquitous to the island as both a popular souvenir and a highly collectible object that reflects the island's fascinating history and heritage.

Baskets Born of Necessity and Boredom

In 1820, the United States began building and converting ships into lightships in coastal waters and the Great Lakes. These vessels served as floating beacons to identify perilous shoals, reefs and shifting channels in places where lighthouse construction wasn't possible. The ships housed bright and navigational light beacons atop their masts to guide maritime traffic.

basket - history - marinalife
Friendship basket purse made by José Formoso Reyes in 1950 | The Nantucket Historical Association[/caption]

xThe waters around Nantucket were well traversed and very treacherous. In Nantucket Sound, sandbars muddled traffic, so the U.S. government placed a lightship there in 1823 to help mark a safe path by the island along a popular commercial route between New York and Boston. It became known as the Cross Rip Lightship.The Nantucket South Shoals off the island's southeast coast proved hazardous for transatlantic shipping. In some locations, the water can be as shallow as three feet. The shoals were a notorious shipwreck site, so the government stationed a lightship at the South Shoals in 1854. A lightship operated at the South Shoals until 1983 when it was replaced by a large navigation buoy. It was at the time America's last working lightship. By 1985, new technologies rendered the old lightship program obsolete.Lightships were manned vessels, and many Nantucket men were hired to work on the ones around the island. Some of these men had been whalers from back when Nantucket was the epicenter of the whaling industry. Rough coastal weather made the lightboat service perilous. For example, they had no onboard electricity, and the crew's only warmth was furnished by manually tending coal-burning stoves always at risk of breaking loose from their mounts and spilling hot coals during fierce storms that churned up mountainous waves that crashed over the ship.It was lonely, too. I've read how life on a lightship was likened to a term of solitary confinement combined with the horrors of seasickness. It's no wonder these men began making baskets to while away the time.

Cross Rip Lightship - history - marinalife
Cross Rip Lightship on station, circa 1930s | The Nantucket Historical Association

According to several sources, it is likely a man named Thomas James introduced basketmaking to men on the lightships. James, the story goes, had worked in the whaling industry and during his voyages supposedly made baskets in his spare time. When he began working on the South Shoals Lightboat, he took up his old pastime while on duty and sold his work on leave in Nantucket town. It wasn't long before he taught his skill to his fellow lightship men.Though the classic Nantucket basket is attributed to men aboard lightships in the mid-19th century, it's important to remember that its distinctive design was probably inspired by baskets originally woven with ash wood by the Wampanoags, the island's indigenous people.Lighthouse baskets typically were round and built on a mold with flat wooden bottoms to which staves (ribs) were attached to form the basic shape. Cane, also known as rattan, was then woven in and around the staves from bottom to top. Each basket was finished with a wooden handle. Tops and decorative elements weren't added until later. These baskets became popular with locals and tourists and thus became known as Nantucket lightship baskets. They're very desirable today among collectors.

Basketmaking Enters the 20th Century

By 1905, the last man from Nantucket manned a local lightship. Shortly thereafter, the federal government banned basket-making aboard lightships to end moon-lighting commerce. The craft then moved on island where it was taken up by a new generation of basket weavers who began personalizing their work and looking for ways to make them stand out and appeal to the growing tourist trade.

Nantucket basket lamp - history - marinalife
The author and Nantucket basket lamp

One of the most significant of this new generation of basket makers was José Reyes, a Filipino with an Education degree from Harvard, who served in the U.S. Navy fighting the Japanese and then after the war immigrated to Nantucket where his wife's family had a home. Unable to find a job in education, he repaired cane furniture and learned to make Nantucket lighthouse style baskets.Reyes is credited in 1948 for adding a top to the lightship basket and turning it into a purse for women. These purses, later known as friendship purses, quickly became de rigour for well-to-do summer residents. Reyes later included ivory carvings to adorn the purse tops. Rumor has it the name originated when a woman carrying one of Reyes' purses while visiting Paris noticed another woman with the same purse. She yelled out Friendship! and the two strangers became lifelong friends linked by their shared love of Nantucket.Paul Whitten, another basket maker, helped elevate artistic appreciation for the Nantucket basket when he was invited in 1974 by the Smithsonian Institution's Renwick Gallery to submit one of his pieces in a national arts and crafts competition. His basket was selected to appear in the gallery and then tour the country with other competition winners as part of a traveling exhibit. Whitten's basket was purchased by the Smithsonian for its permanent collection. Whitten also wrote extensively about Nantucket baskets, which has been important to preserving the history of this unique craft.Today the lightship basket influence can be seen in jewelry, cribs, bike baskets and all sorts of decorative pieces sold on and off island. Yours truly even owns a pair of tall handsome lamps modeled on the classic Nantucket Basket. There's even an auction market for exceptional baskets woven on Nantucket. A recent piece went for more than $100,000. Who'd have thunk it?

Nantucket Lighthouse Basket Museum

If you're visiting Nantucket and want to delve deeper into the history of these unique baskets and learn more about their makers, you won't want to miss the Nantucket Lighthouse Basket Museum. It features a permanent collection of baskets, special exhibits and basket weaving classes. The museum website also has a variety of fascinating videos, including an interview with noted basket weaver José Reyes.Location: 96 Main St.,Nantucket, MA 02554Hours: May 28 – October 17, open daily 10:00 a.m.-4:00 p.m.nantucketlightshipbasketmuseum.org

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The Origins of Fish Capture Flags
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I've never had much luck saltwater fishing. My first outing as a young boy was holding a handline over the side of my grandfather Pop Hunter's motorboat in the shallow bay behind Alligator Point east of Apalachicola, Florida. Pop and my father were after redfish, and I wasn't expected to catch anything. Sit and be quiet, they said. So I did, until something grabbed my line, and I let out a scream.[caption id="attachment_324734" align="alignright" width="200"]

Fish flags - history - marinalife

Fish flags | Jodi Jacobson[/caption]My grandfather snatched the line and began battling a strong fish with just his tough freckled hands. That fish turned out to be a small hammerhead shark! When he finally pulled it onboard, he tossed it at my feet where it thrashed about, and I began screaming again certain it was going to bite me until Pop threw it back in the bay. He thought it was hilarious and told the story repeatedly that summer. Somewhat traumatized, I didn't go saltwater fishing again for years. When I finally did, all I managed to hook was a four-inch starfish. Like Pop, the fishing boat operator laughed. It was a first, he said, and he lamented that he didn't have an appropriate starfish flag to hoist for our return trip to the dock.Spend time around harbor docks and marinas, especially in the afternoon when the fishing boats come in, and you'll undoubtedly notice rectangular flags featuring different kinds of fish fluttering on outrigger halyards. Though they might look decorative, they're not. These fish flags, more formally referred to as capture flags, are colorful signals to let others know which fish were biting that day. It's a tradition born in the days before daily fishing reports began to appear in newspapers and on radio.The earliest capture flags on record are attributed to The Tuna Club of Santa Catalina Island, California, a private fishing club started in 1898 by Los Angeles Times editor Dr. Charles Holder for the southern California and Hollywood elite. The Tuna Club refers to itself as the oldest fishing club in the United States, and it's still going strong.Charlie Chaplin, Bing Crosby, Cecil B. DeMille, William Wrigley and George S. Patton were among its early members. Teddy Roosevelt was an honorary member. Members flew large colored flags on their boats to alert their fellow anglers when they caught tuna, swordfish and marlin. The practice quickly spread, and sport fisherman and charter boat captains on both coasts began hoisting flags to announce their catch as they pulled into the docks.In Florida, the West Palm Beach Fishing Club (WPBFC) added a different twist to the fish flag. Founded in 1934 during the Great Depression, the WPBFC's mission was to promote fishing to lure visitors to the Palm Beaches and stimulate the local economy. Given the proximity of the Gulf Stream and its big game fish, the club initiated the Silver Sailfish Derby fishing competition, a celebration of one of the world's most elegant and iconic sport fishes. The Derby was the first serious billfish competition in the country. It quickly became the in thing to do for wealthy tourists. And it still occurs every January.[caption id="attachment_324735" align="alignleft" width="239"]

red sailfish capture flag - history - marinalife

Derby Queen with red sailfish capture flag | WPBFC[/caption]Here's the twist. Club members soon became concerned that too many sailfish were being caught and not consumed or mounted as trophies. As a result, WPBFC established new rules to restrict the number and size of sailfish captured and brought aboard boats during the derby. To help incentivize the policy, they encouraged contestants to raise a triangular red pennant to signify smaller sailfish that were caught and released so they could still be given their proper due. The national media seized on it with vigor. And in turn, the red pennant inspired other contests geared toward catch-and-release fishing and helped change the nature of big game fishing. It also furthered the practice and the prevalence of flying fish flags.As sport fishing became more popular and accessible to Americans in the 1960s and 1970s, so too did fish flags. This was driven in part by a growing number of game fishing tournaments with affordable entry fees and guaranteed prize money. Competitors wanted to show off their fishing prowess, so flag companies were more than happy to begin making and supplying 12"x18" canvas and nylon flags featuring the most popular varieties of sport fish marlin, swordfish, sailfish, tuna, mahi-mahi, wahoo, etc. that we still see on boats today.Sharks, by the way, merit a capture flag. You can't miss it. It's usually a vibrant red color and features a white shark. To the best of my knowledge, there's still not a starfish flag.

HOW TO FLY YOUR FISH FLAG

[caption id="attachment_324736" align="alignright" width="300"]

white marlin - history - marinalife

White Marlin | Lunamarina[/caption]You need not worry about official regulations for displaying fish capture flags. Protocols vary from location to location. That said, more experienced fishermen tend to follow some informal rules of thumb.

  • Fish flags are generally flown on the port or starboard outrigger halyard and in order of merit, meaning game fish with bills (marlins, swordfish and sailfish) go at the top and others follow in order of size from largest to smallest. Shark flags are often flown on the bottom.
  • It's appropriate to fly a flag for each fish caught, though some say you should only fly one yellow mahi-mahi flag no matter how many you land. In Hawaii, some boats will run a black pirate flag beneath the mahi-mahi when more than 20 are caught.
  • Never run flags all the way to the top of the rigger; keep them about three quarters up the rigger and spaced at least six inches apart as this is optimal for visibility.
  • Flying a fish flag upside down is the most common way to signal a successful catch and release. Some fishermen, however, prefer to fly a fish flag right side up with a smaller square red flag beneath it or a red T-flag to indicate a fish was tagged and released. Red pennants are still sometimes used.
  • A fish flag should never hang on the halyard for more than a few hours, though charter boats might fly them for 24 hours to help attract clients.
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On the Trail of Ernest Hemingway
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Mornings at the home on 907 Whitehead Street in 1930s-era Key West were filled with the faint sounds of a pencil on paper or fingers flicking the keys on a Royal-brand typewriter. By early afternoon, this illustrious inhabitant had finished his work for the day, satisfied with the progress on his latest novel and went for a walk.

hemingway's boat - hemingway - marinalife
Hemingway's fishing boat, Pilar | Sura Ark

Sometimes, the destination was his favorite watering hole, Sloppy Joe's. Other times, he'd head for the docks and cast off on a fishing trip aboard his beloved Pilar. Still other days, he went to the Key West Arena to referee in boxing matches featuring local fighters of Bahamian descent.Today, it's possible to retrace the footsteps of one of Key West's most recognizable past residents, Ernest Hemingway. The same is true of the Bahamian island of Bimini to the north and Cuba to the south. This trio of tropical locations is where Hemingway lived and visited for more than 30 years and inspired some of the Pulitzer and Nobel prize-winning author's works.Born in 1899 in Oak Park, Chicago, Hemingway grew up excelling athletically and academically. High grades in English led to his first literary pursuit, as editor of his high school newspaper and yearbook. After graduation, he worked as a cub reporter for The Kansas City Star, where the periodical's style guide shaped his writing – short sentences, short paragraphs, no slang, no superfluous words.Over the next decade, he served as a World War I ambulance driver, a Paris-based foreign correspondent, and then transitioned from journalist to writer with the novel, The Sun Also Rises, centered on bullfighting in Pamplona, Spain. Hemingway then married his second wife, Pauline, in 1927, and the two moved back to America.

KEY WEST, FLORIDA1928-1939

Ernest and Pauline never meant to call Key West home. The two first arrived at the southernmost town in the Continental United States on a steamship from Cuba after a long cold winter in Paris. It was April 1928.

Finca Vigia - hemingway - marinalife
Finca Vigia, Cuba | JFK Collection

Pauline's Uncle Gus had bought the couple a Model A Ford, and it was supposed to be in Key West when they arrived. There weren't the bridges we have now. Most everything was shipped in by boat or rail. The car dealer was so embarrassed the car wasn't there that he offered Hemingway and his wife an apartment above the dealership to stay. That dealership was on Simonton Street. It was called the Trev-Mor Ford. Today the building is a private residence called Casa Antigua. Hemingway was so inspired by Key West that he finished A Farewell to Arms while staying at the apartment. Just think, if the car had been ready, he might not have lived in Key West, and it would have been a whole other story, says Carol Shaughnessy, a 40-year Key West resident, who works with Newman PR's Florida Keys News Bureau, and is former director of the city's Hemingway Days festival.Pauline's Uncle Gus bought the Hemingways' home on Whitehead Street for them in 1931. Originally built in 1851, the two-story Spanish Colonial-style house undertook a massive restoration and remodeling that included the addition of a pool in the late 1930s. Today, the Hemingway Home is a National Historic Landmark, open for daily tours.His writing studio probably was his favorite room. He was able to get out of bed in his master bedroom and walk across the catwalk and start his day writing. He would continue writing until around noon, says Alexa Morgan, director of PR for the Hemingway Home & Museum, who adds that the author penned a huge portion of his life's work here.Hemingway was an animal lover, so he enjoyed it when a ship captain gifted his sons a kitten and they named it Snow White, adds Morgan. Polydactyl cats are meant to be of good luck. A quote of his, ‘One cat just leads to another,' is one of our favorites, since we currently have 58 (many are six- and seven-toed) cats on the property. We kept his tradition alive by naming our resident felines after famous people from Ernest's time, adds Morgan.Several other Key West places to visit can pick up on the vibe of Hemingway. One of the most famous is Sloppy Joe's Bar, now located at 201 Duval Street. Local legend tells that Hemingway drank with the owner, Joe Russell, before the bar's official opening date of December 5, 1933, when Prohibition was repealed. Hemingway is also credited with encouraging Joe to re-name his saloon Sloppy Joe's, in remembrance of a bar in Havana, which had ‘sloppy' melted ice on the floor.The Blue Heaven Restaurant, at the corner of Petronia & Thomas streets, is where Hemingway slipped in unrecognized at Bahamian boxing fights in the then-named Key West Arena. The SALT Gallery at 830 Fleming Street, a half-mile north of Hemingway's home, was once called Mrs. Rhoda Baker's Electric Kitchen, where he dined on 20-cent ‘club breakfasts.'Hemingway's passion for big game fishing ignited in Key West. He bought Pilar, a 38-foot wheeler, and often fished with Charles Thompson, who owned a hardware store at Thompson's Docks on Caroline Street, the location of Key West Historic Seaport today. The two pushed far into the gulf stream, as well as to the Dry Tortugas, fishing for monster blue marlin and bluefin tuna. Charter boat captain Bra Saunders was at the helm onHemingway's and Thompson's first trip to the Dry Tortugas. Saunders' gnarled hands are said to be the author's inspiration for those of the old Cuban fishermen, Santiago, in Old Man and the Sea.The last time Hemingway and his friends fished in the Dry Tortugas, a tropical storm marooned them for two-plus-weeks at what is now Fort Jefferson. Nowadays, a high-speed catamaran ferry takes visitors on day trips from Key West to Fort Jefferson in the Dry Tortugas National Park.

BIMINI, THE BAHAMAS1935-1937

Hemingway's love of fishing, bolstered by his adventurous spirit and 1933 trip to hunt big game on Africa's Serengeti plains, enticed him to stalk giant bluefin tuna. In 1935, he first ventured to Bimini, with catches of 514- and 610-pound tuna soon to his credit.

Hemingway House Facade - hemingway - marinalife
Hemingway House Facade | Hemingway Home and Museum

When he wasn't aboard Pilar, he was at his home on Alice Town's Main Street, where only cinder rubble and a commemorative sign remain today, or at a small hotel and bar called the Compleat Angler. This hotel burned down in 2006, and with it all the Hemingway memorabilia, though a monument stands there today.Across the way, at the Bimini Big Game Club Resort & Marina, two framed photos on the wall at the bar are real finds for Hemingway aficionados. One is a 1939-written letter from Michael Lerner, of New York's Lerner Corporation store fame, to Hemingway, in what was initial correspondence between the two avid anglers to promote releasing rather than killing their catch. The second is Hemingway's concurring reply.We don't have a chair at the bar where we can say Hemingway sat, but the old-time Bimini vibe, the way it felt when he was here, is still very much alive, says Stephen Kappeler, the club's managing director. We have guests that come to soak up that feeling of when Hemingway was here. Of course, they also come here to sport fish off their own boats as Hemingway did or on charters.Just west of the club off Queen's Highway is the Dolphin House. This museum and home were hand-built from recycled materials by Ashley Saunders, a fifth generation Biminite. Saunders' relatives boxed with Hemingway on makeshift rings on the beach. Open to the public, the museum showcases Hemingway artifacts, his sayings like Write drunk, edit sober on the walls, and old photos such as Pauline cutting his hair outside.

HAVANA, CUBA1940-1960

Hemingway divorced Pauline, and with his third wife Martha, he bought a home he called Finca Vigía in the San Francisco de Paula neighborhood, about 15 miles south of Havana. The 1886 property, with its incredible view of Havana, is where Hemingway wrote The Old Man and the Sea. It's now a museum, and the grounds are open for public tour. He and later fourth wife, Mary, enjoyed Havana's bohemian nightclub scene in the late 1940s and 1950s with Hollywood glitterati like Spencer Tracy, Katharine Hepburn and Ava Gardner. Up until the last year of his life, Hemingway continued to sport fish.

hemingway - marinalife
Ernest Hemingway on a dock with a tuna | JFK Collection

In 1960, Hemingway last participated in an Ernest Hemingway International Billfish Tournament. It was then that he and Fidel Castro, also a participating angler, met. When we founded our Hemingway International Yacht Club in 1992, we wanted to recall the history of the former International Yacht Club of Havana, which, in 1950, organized the first Ernest Hemingway International Billfish Tournament. We have a seat of honor at the club and photos on the wall that show that meeting, says Commodore Jose Escrich.The area between the Morro Castle at the entrance of Havana Bay and the town east of Havana called Cojímar is known as the Hemingway Mile. Here he frequently fished aboard Pilar. Escrich says anglers competing in the tournament today catch most of their fish in this area.

Hemingway Days

Immerse yourself in the life, legend and lore of Ernest Hemingway, at the Hemingway Days festival in Key West. Set for July 19-24, 2022, to coincide with Hemingway's birthday on July 21, the week-long celebration features a Hemingway Look-Alike Contest at Sloppy Joe's Bar, a Running of the Bulls where contestants and past contest winners parade down Duval Street with hand-built bulls, a fishing tournament, 5K run and paddleboard race that are both a nod to Hemingway as an avid sportsman, and the Lorian Hemingway Short Story Competition, coordinated and judged by the author's granddaughter, Lorian Hemingway. For more, go to hemingwaydays.net

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