History

Fabulous Forts of the Coastal Southeast

By
Capt. Jeff
Werner

The ports and river inlets of the Eastern Seaboard offer a unique glimpse into the history of exploration, colonialism, independence and the Civil War. Ships planted the American colonies here, and trade by sea propelled the United States into the powerhouse economy of the world by the turn of the 20th century. However, maintaining a large navy to protect those economic interests was too expensive for the new nation. Cheaper alternatives were devised to protect American waters.

Central to the success of the fledgling United States was constructing coastal military fortifications for defense rather than building a costly navy. These defensive works allowed breathing room for the  new government and economy to flourish. Over the first 70 years of nationhood before the Civil War, Congress allocated funds in three distinct "systems" to build these forts.

First System: In 1793, President George Washington proposed a series of 19 forts to protect American harbors along the Eastern Seaboard. These star shaped forts were surrounded  with low, sloped earthworks that covered the fortification's wooden walls. One row of cannons was placed on the open roof of the fort.

Second System: To end reliance on European military engineers to design forts in America, the army needed homegrown engineers. That was accomplished with training at the new military academy at West Point (created in 1802). President Thomas Jefferson began a new fortification system program in 1808 to strengthen the vulnerability of the open batteries of the earthen First System forts, specifically exploding shells that showered the gunners with shrapnel. The Second System forts featured covered casemates or vaulted rooms that protected the artillerists.

Third System: After the War of 1812, President James Madison understood how easily the United States was attacked by sea, so he appointed a Board of Engineers of Fortifications in 1816 to design a stronger Third System of forts on the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Pacific coasts. By the start of the Civil War, 42 new major forts protected these coastlines with structures that were larger, taller and had at least two tiers of powerful cannons.

Cruising the U.S. Atlantic coast by boat yields a greater understanding of history than any textbook can offer. The forts of the shoreline from Virginia to Florida offer lessons from the early colonial ambitions of Spain to the dashed hopes of the Confederacy, all of which can be rediscovered by boat. To witness their glory, add the following forts to your must-see list.

VIRGINIA

Fort Monroe

At the confluence of the mouth of Chesapeake Bay and Hampton Roads sits Old Point Comfort. The strategic importance of this location was recognized as far back as 1609, and various wooden forts occupied that spot for more than 200 years. Completed in 1834 and surrounded by a moat, this Third System seven-sided star stronghold is the largest stone fort built in the United States. It remained in Union hands throughout the Civil War.

Fort Norfolk

South of Hampton Roads on the eastern bank of the Elizabeth River is the site of Fort Norfolk, a First System design built in 1794. Made obsolete by nearby Fort Monroe, it served as a munitions depot to supply naval ships at the nearby shipyard. At the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, the Union army abandoned Fort Norfolk. Confederates occupied the fort and used it to supply powder and shot to their ships that tried to break the Union blockade at Hampton Roads. The most famous of these blockade battles was between the Monitor and the Merrimac.

NORTH CAROLINA

Fort Macon

During the colonial period, Beaufort Inlet provided access to  marauding pirates such as Blackbeard. To protect Beaufort Harbor, North Carolina's only major deep water ocean port, a Third System fort was built on the sands of Bogue Banks in 1834. Although captured by Confederate forces during the first year of the Civil War, the Union army retook the pentagonal fort a year later.

Fort Fisher

Wilmington sits 20 miles up the Cape Fear River from the inlet at the Atlantic Ocean. That city was a major trading port for war supplies for the Confederacy by British smugglers, who exchanged food, clothing and munitions for tobacco and cotton from the South. To guard this vital wartime lifeline, rebel forces built a fort made of soil mounds at the mouth of the Cape Fear River in 1861.

SOUTH CAROLINA

Fort Sumter

The entrance to Charleston Harbor is the location of a brick Third System fort with three tiers of cannon emplacements. Construction began in 1829, but building the five-foot thick walls that were 50 feet tall was very slow and tedious. On April 12, 1861, the fort was still not completed when Confederate gunners fired the first shots of the Civil War. After a constant barrage of artillery shells, the Union garrison surrendered the next day.

Fort Moultrie

In 1776, South Carolina's colonial regiments built a square palmetto log and sand fort with corner bastions on Sullivan's Island to protect Charleston Harbor from attack by the British Navy. A week before the Declaration of Independence was published, this fort successfully fought off nine British warships in an all-day battle. A new First System fort was built there in 1798 and replaced by a Second System fort by 1811.

GEORGIA

Fort James Jackson

Now known as Old Fort Jackson, this  fort was constructed over an old earthen battery from the Revolutionary War and used to protect Savannah from attack  by ships coming up the Savannah River. Built of brick and completed in 1812, it  is an excellent example of Second  System architecture.

Fort Pulaski

This Third System fort on Tybee Island was constructed with about 25 million bricks to build walls 11 feet thick. It was finished in 1847 under the supervision of Lieutenant Robert E. Lee, then an engineer in the U.S. army. The fort was occupied by Confederate troops in 1861, but a year later Union gunners bombarded Fort Pulaski. The artillery breached a wall and forced the surrender of the fort back to the Union army. This siege used rifled cannons with exploding projectiles instead of smooth bore cannons with round shot. These newer cannons could smash through thick brick walls of Second and Third System forts and quickly made that architecture obsolete.

FLORIDA

Castillo de San Marcos

St. Augustine was founded in 1565 as part of the Spanish Empire. Castillo de San Marcos is the oldest masonry fortress in America and was built with local coquina stone. Construction started in 1672 on the square-shaped fort with large corner bastions. It remained under Spanish control until 1821, except for a 20-year period after the American Revolution when it was given to Great Britain as part of the Treaty of Paris.

Fort Jefferson

The Dry Tortugas at the western end of the Florida Keys served as the turning waypoint for ships loaded with cotton bales from antebellum Southern states to destinations on the Eastern Seaboard and Europe. Protecting those shipping lanes was the role of this massive fort built in 1846 on tiny Garden Key.

COASTAL FORTS OF THE SOUTHEAST

Fort Monroe National Monument

41 Bernard Road, Hampton, VA757-722-3678

Fort Norfolk

801 Front St., Norfolk, VA757-754-2004

Fort Macon State Park

2303 East Fort Macon Road,Atlantic Beach, NC252-726-3775

Fort Fisher State Historic Site

1610 Fort Fisher Blvd. South,Kure Beach, NC910-251-7340

Fort Sumter National Monument & Fort Moultrie National Park

1214 Middle St.,Sullivan's Island, SC843-883-3123

Old Fort Jackson

1 Fort Jackson Road,Savannah, GA912-232-3945

Fort Pulaski National Monument

Tybee Island, GA912-786-5787

Castillo de San Marcos National Monument

1 South Castillo Drive,St. Augustine, FL904-829-6506

Fort Jefferson

Dry Tortugas National Park,Garden Key, FL305-245-7700Capt. Jeff Werner has been in the yachting industry for over 25 years. In addition to working as a captain on private and charter yachts, both sail and power, he is a certified instructor for the USCG, US Sailing, RYA and the MCA. He is also the Diesel Doctor, helping to keep your yacht's fuel in optimal condition for peak performance. For more information, call 239-246-6810, or visit MyDieselDoctor.com. All Marinalife members receive a 10% discount on purchases of equipment, products and supplies from Diesel Doctor.

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Hurricane Hunters
|

Hurricanes are nature’s grandest, most ferocious storms. They fascinate us, and they repel us. As a radio news and weather reporter in Miami for 30 years, my grandfather was obsessed with hurricanes. (Confession: I am, too.) Using colored pencils and a wooden ruler, he meticulously plotted their paths onto an enormous paper map tacked up on the wall of his study. It was a beautiful and mesmerizing record of these ferocious and complicated storms that somehow feel alive as they zigzag and wobble across the ocean like drunken sailors.

Science has improved dramatically since my grandfather’s era. A fleet of Earth- observing satellites providing real-time data now help thousands of scientists around the world answer three age-old questions: Where and when will the hurricane hit and how strong will it be? Modern forecasts are pretty accurate. Long gone is the day when a storm could sneak up and hit without any warning. Here are the stories of three men who helped pave the way.

Three Who Paved the Way for How We Track & Predict Hurricanes Today

Father Hurricane

When the regime of Queen Isabella II of Spain collapsed in 1868, many who supported her thought it wise to flee the country. Father Benito Viñes, a Jesuit priest and educator, was one of them. He emigrated to Cuba and found a position as director of the meteorological observatory in Havana. Shocked by the damage hurricanes regularly inflicted upon the island, he made it his mission to learn everything he could about them.

Within five years of arriving, Father Viñes knew more about hurricanes than any living person. He was the first to discover that the cloud pattern and the behavior of the wind well in advance of a storm could be used to track it accurately. Using this information, he designed the “Antilles cyclonoscope,” a kind of slide-rule that could estimate from a considerable distance the current position of a hurricane and calculate its likely path. Up until then, weather observers could tell when a hurricane was coming but not where it was going.

His first forecast was published in a Havana newspaper on September 11, 1875 — two days before an intense hurricane ravaged the southern coast of Cuba. Many lives were saved because of the timely warning. Throughout the 1880s he exchanged hurricane information with other weather observers across the Caribbean via telegraph. It was the first hurricane warning system and a model the United States. Weather Service later emulated it. Father Viñes was so well-respected that for a short time hurricanes were even called Viñesas and identified numerically. The pronunciation, however, was difficult for Americans, so the practice ceased. Father Viñes died in 1893.

The Aerial Acrobat

Len Povey

Len Povey was a self-taught pilot who flew with the new U.S. Army Air Service until 1922 when he left to pursue a more “colorful” career testing race planes, flying bootleg liquor and barnstorming over the Great Lakes as a headliner with a flying circus. His aerial acrobatics at the All-American Air Maneuvers show in Miami in 1934 caught the eye of a Cuban Air Force official who hired him to train Cuban pilots and serve as the personal pilot for Fulgencio Batista, the chief of the armed forces and later president and dictator of the island nation.

When Cuba’s Weather Service detected a storm intensifying several hundred miles east of the island in early September 1935, Len Povey volunteered to help pinpoint the location and movement of the storm. He jumped in his Curtiss Hawk II, an open cockpit biplane, and flew over the Straits of Florida where he located the hurricane farther north than predicted and moving northwestward toward the Florida Keys. The Cubans dispatched a warning, but it was too late. Later that same day, the storm roared ashore at Islamorada, FL, with winds of 200 m.p.h. and a 20-foot storm surge that drowned more than 400 people, mostly Army veterans who were building the Overseas Railroad.

Povey later joined the faculty at Embry-Riddle, a private Florida college focused on aviation and aerospace programs, where he was a tireless advocate for aerial hurricane patrols. However, the type of reconnaissance mission he envisioned didn’t happen until July 1943, when Air Force Colonel Joe Duckworth flew a plane directly into the eye of a hurricane churning toward Galveston, TX. Len Povey died in 1984. His obituary claimed he survived a mid-air collision and an encounter with a turkey buzzard that sheared off a portion of his plane’s wing.

The Data Cruncher

One of the most recognized voices on hurricanes in the late 20th century emanated ironically from a mile-high lab at Colorado State University. That voice was Dr. William Gray, a professor of tropical meteorology from 1961 until 2005.

Bill Gray grew up in Washington, DC, wanting to be a baseball player. He was a standout pitcher for George Washington University until he hurt his knee. During service in the Air Force, he turned to a career in climatology. He once told the Los Angeles Times he was inspired to study hurricanes after he flew a plane through one off the east coast of Florida in 1958.

Dr. Gray was an outlier when it came to hurricanes. He eschewed computer modeling, focusing instead on observational science: historical storm data, old maps featuring storm patterns, and statistics on wind speed, water temperatures and other meteorological factors. He was the first to determine that the intensity and frequency of storms in the Atlantic was cyclical and that likelihood of a hurricane reaching the East Coast of the United States depended on a variety of factors including the amount of rainfall in Africa and the impact of El Niño (the periodic warming of the Pacific Ocean that produces powerful winds that shear off the tops of storms developing in the Atlantic). In short, he figured out Mother Nature’s recipe for powerful storms.

In 1984 Dr. Gray unveiled the first Atlantic seasonal hurricane forecast and quickly became a hurricane superstar and media darling. He, however, considered his greatest legacy the students whom he taught and mentored, many of whom went on to become leaders in weather research and forecasting. He died in 2016.

Check out Marinalife's recent article about How Hurricanes Get Their Names.

Hurricane Tracking Apps for Your Phone

You don’t need all six of these apps, but we’re certain you’ll find one here that you like. All are available on Google Play and the Apple App Store.

THE WEATHER CHANNEL

Rain radar, storm tracker and severe weather warnings help you prepare for hurricane season, as well as storms and heavy rain. Monitor live radar updates, an hourly rain tracker, storm radar news, and local weather forecast on the go. Free. Available in English and 30 other languages.

NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER DATA

Official data, custom graphics, updates and maps from National Hurricane Center (NHC) experts. Considered the grandparent of all hurricane trackers. Free. Available in English and French.

WEATHER UNDERGROUND

Reliable, real-time and hyperlocal forecasts combining data from 250,000+ personal weather stations and a proprietary forecast model provide an incredibly accurate local forecast. Interactive radar and customizable severe weather alerts. Free. Available in English and 30 other languages.

CLIME

Previously called NOAA Radar, this is a good hurricane tracker app, because it lets you overlay rain, radar or satellite images on top of the tracker. This gives you a detailed look at what’s happening in the storm. Add multiple locations to the map to get alerted if you’re in the path of a hurricane. Free. Multiple languages. Paid upgrade packages available.

RADARSCOPE

If you’re willing to spend some money on an app favored by weather nerds and professional storm chasers, then check out RadarScope. The learning curve is steeper than with others, but it features high-resolution radar data sourced from NOAA’s next generation radar and Doppler Weather Radar. Available in English, French, German and Spanish.

HURRICANE – AMERICAN RED CROSS

Monitor conditions in your area or throughout the storm track, prepare your family and home, find help and let others know you are safe. Free. Available in English and Spanish.

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How Hurricanes Get Their Names
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Historically, hurricanes in the United States were referred to by their time period and/or geographic location, e.g., the Great Galveston Hurricane of 1900. In the West Indies, they were named after the particular saint’s day on which the hurricane occurred. A colorful Australian weatherman named Clement Wragge began assigning Greek and Roman mythological names to Pacific cyclones in the late 19th century. He later began naming them after politicians he particularly disliked.

During World War II, U.S. Air Force and Navy meteorologists plotting storms over the Pacific needed a better way to denote tropical cyclones while analyzing weather maps. Many began paying tribute to their wives and girlfriends back home by naming the cyclones after them. In 1954, the National Weather Bureau officially embraced the practice of giving hurricanes women’s names. Because America led the world in weather tracking technology, the practice was adopted elsewhere.

In response to pressure from women’s groups, the National Weather Service and the World Meteorological Association began using both men’s and women’s names starting in 1979. More recently, the lists of names, which are predetermined and rotate every six years, have been further diversified to reflect names used in the many regions where tropical cyclones strike. Names of devastating storms, such as Katrina in 2005, are permanently retired.

Read More
The Fishy Side of Ocean City, MD
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With its sandy beaches and boardwalk attractions, Ocean City is the quintessential family summer vacation destination. It’s also a popular spot for sport fishermen and boaters traveling up and down the East Coast. But it wasn’t always that way. 

Ocean City was established on a barrier island called Assateague that extended 60 miles from the Indian River Inlet in Delaware to Chincoteague, VA. The section of the island belonging to the State of Maryland had no outlet to the sea, and early visitors came to bathe in the surf and take in the fresh ocean breezes. These travelers arrived by ferry boat from the mainland until 1876 when a wooden trestle train bridge was built. 

In its younger days, Ocean City was half resort town and half fishing village. The fishing was “pound fishing,” a style I’d wager few people today have ever seen. It was practiced originally by Native Americans and became popular in the 19 century along the East Coast from Maritime Canada to the Carolinas.

Pound fisherman used wide nets attached to wooden poles to catch fish. They drove these tall poles into the ocean floor about a half mile from shore, creating permanent structures called pounds. When fish entered the open end of a pound, they were then corralled by the nets and couldn’t escape. 

With no passage into the Atlantic, crews of Ocean City fishermen needed to launch 40-foot boats from the beach directly into the ocean and row out to the pounds. To harvest the fish, the crew would remove the ends of the nets from the poles and pull them up by hand. The fish were then brought back to shore, carted across the island, packed in barrels of ice and shipped via railroad to fish markets in Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York.

It was laborious work, and for years local businessmen petitioned state and federal agencies to create a manmade inlet to connect the bay directly to more fertile fishing grounds farther off the coast.

A Fierce Storm Carves Out a New Inlet

In August of 1933, a hurricane came ashore in Norfolk, VA, and then tracked up the center of the Chesapeake Bay, bringing up to 10 inches of rain per day and flooding the back bays to the west of Ocean City. Oceanside, wind and waves destroyed homes, hotels and businesses on the town’s boardwalk. 

When the storm subsided, the railroad bridge and fish camps had been washed away, replaced by an inlet 50 feet wide and eight feet deep that formed when built-up water driven by high tides rushed east over the barrier island from the swollen back bays to the ocean. Mother Nature did what governments wouldn’t do, and it changed Ocean City forever.

It didn’t take long for officials to take advantage of this event and enlarge the inlet to ensure its permanence. As a result, a commercial harbor, marinas and docks began sprouting up around the inlet and across the bay on the mainland. Most fishing was commercial in those immediate post-hurricane years, but a few captains realized the recreational fishing potential in the shoals and fertile canyons offshore that were teaming with billfish and other species. During World War II, a lack of fuel and the presence of German U-Boats in the Atlantic virtually shut down offshore fishing. Things picked up after the war, and by the late 1950s and 1960s more and more fishermen were coming to Ocean City. 

But it was the white marlin that really put Ocean City on the sport fishing map. A challenging fish known for its beauty, the white marlin wows anglers with its speed and jumping antics. These fish travel in packs and are prevalent in Maryland waters in late summer and early fall. 

Sport fishermen have been chasing white marlins off the coast of Maryland since 1934 when President Franklin Roosevelt visited and caught two of the feisty billfish. To celebrate this exceptional fish and attract more attention to Ocean City, local fishermen launched the White Marlin Open in 1974. Fifty-seven boats entered that first year. By contrast, the 2021 Open drew 444 boats, more than 3,500 contestants – including NBA superstar Michael Jordan – and awarded $9.2 million dollars in prize money making Ocean City the undisputed “White Marlin Capital of the World.”

Ocean City today counts eight marinas, 20 fishing tournaments and numerous charter boats. According to the city council, boating and sportfishing are significant economic drivers bringing tens of millions of dollars annually to the local economy. 

So, whether you’re a hardcore sport fisherman, casual angler or a boater who simply enjoys a cocktail dockside at sunset, there’s something for everyone “Goin’ downy O, Hon!” as native Marylanders like to say about a visit to their beloved Ocean City.

Check Out Three World-Class OC Fishing Tournaments

Ocean City Tuna Tournament
July 8-10, 2022

Entering its 35th year, this has become the world’s largest tuna tournament with more than 100 participating boats and a record payout that eclipsed $1 million in 2021. 

White Marlin Open
August 8-12, 2022

First held in 1974, the WMO is inarguably the highlight of the Ocean City fishing tournament calendar. Now the biggest and richest billfish tournament in the world, the WMO drew 444 boats and 3,500+ contestants last year.

Poor Girls Open
August 17-20, 2022
Launched in 1994, this is the largest ladies-only billfish release tournament benefitting breast cancer research. Despite its charitable overtones, the tournament is all about the fishing, and the hundreds of boats and hundreds of competitors take it very seriously.

The Orange Crush: A Cocktail Born on the OC Docks

Orange Crush | Susan Elnicki Wade

The Orange Crush is a staple cocktail in most Maryland bars. It’s basically a screwdriver with a shot of triple sec and a splash of lemon-lime soda. The secret to a good one, though, is fresh-squeezed orange juice. And there’s no place better to try one than the Harborside Bar & Grill in Ocean City where the cocktail is said to have originated on a slow night in 1995 when a couple of bartenders were bored and playing around with a bottle of orange-flavored vodka.

Harborside is a wooden establishment whose backside opens onto the commercial harbor in West Ocean City. Gritty is the word that comes to mind. As you would expect, the sign out front boldly announces the home of the Orange Crush, as do newspaper articles framed on the walls and t-shirts for sale. Inside, people pound crabs and watch the Orioles play baseball. Ceiling fans whirl, and it smells of Old Bay and French fries. White lights strung across the ceiling add a festive touch. It doesn’t get more Maryland than that. 

To try your first Orange Crush, visit Harborside Bar & Grill, in Ocean City, MD, 410-213-1846.

Read More

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