Man-Made Marvels of the Chesapeake Bay

Connecting the Eastern and Western Shores of the Bay

Elnicki Wade

Jagged shorelines and peninsulas shaped like crooked fingers make the Chesapeake a gorgeous place to explore. Some people are content to gaze at the scenery and enjoy what Mother Nature gave us. Others choose to alter the master plan.

Tinkering with the Bay's land and waterways started centuries ago, driven by the need to transport goods and people. Over time the population grew, agriculture flourished and manufacturing boomed, but old-fashioned ferries, steamboats and rickety wooden bridges couldn't keep up with growing demands.

Engineers sharpened their pencils and drew plans to build structures that would make the region more hospitable to modern living. Their ideas were bold and ingenious but often questioned by skeptics. And Mother Nature didn't accept change without a fight. She reached into her bag of tricks and bombarded workers with choppy seas, harsh winter winds, hurricanes and the infamous Chesapeake nor'easters.

Despite all odds, mankind accomplished incredible engineering feats from the Susquehanna headwaters to the southern Atlantic shores. Three exceptional structures changed the way people travel around the Bay the Bay Bridge, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal and the Chesapeake Bay Bridge & Tunnel. Here's how these landmarks came to be and why they're worth a visit.

The Bay Bridge

Why would anyone dare to build a tall suspension bridge across an expanse of water known for high winds and unpredictable squalls? Since colonial times, Maryland has been divided by a big belly full of water. The western side of the Bay hummed with commerce, government and busy ports. The rural eastern part flourished with plush farmlands, fishing villages and vacation spots. It almost felt like two different states.

When the urban trinity of Baltimore, Annapolis and Washington swelled with growth, people needed to stretch beyond their western corridor. Plus, Eastern Shore farmers wanted to bring their wares with ease to city markets, and beach towns were luring visitors to their seaside attractions.

Plans to span the Chesapeake's midsection started in the late 1800s, but the idea got shelved during the Great Depression and World War II. In 1947, Maryland Gov. William Preston Lane Jr. spearheaded an effort to bridge the narrow 4.3-mile distance between Sandy Point and Kent Island.

By 1949, construction workers began dropping massive concrete piers into the waves. Within a year, crews completed what looked like giant stepping stones in the water, along with a pair of 354-foot-tall towers that would harness suspension cables. In 1952, the first car drove across the 22,970-foot span, which was heralded as the longest continuous over-water steel structure and the third longest bridge in the world.

The entire East Coast marveled at this architectural wonder. Unfortunately a new problem ensued. In the first year, 1.2 million vehicles raced across the two-lane bridge. Within 10 years, traffic skyrocketed and strained the span's capacity. Engineers went back to the drawing board and designed a parallel structure completed in 1973.

Seasonal traffic remains an issue, but if you cross the Bay Bridge during off-peak hours, you're in for a spectacular show. Sunsets are breathtaking. The sky-high view among the clouds and seagulls makes gigantic cargo liners on the water look like tiny bathtub toys.

Chesapeake Bay Bridge Tunnel

With the Bay's top and midsection flowing smoothly, Virginia eyed the benefits of modern rapid transit and began to assess its piece of the Chesapeake's southern waters. On top of the list was the link between Virginia's Eastern Shore and the Norfolk/Virginia Beach area. Ferryboats ran regularly between those points, but boosting the service didn't match the popular local resorts' rise in traffic.

Initial plans to span the channel were met with resistance by critics who believed the space was too wide and bridges couldn't accommodate Navy warships and cargo vessels.

The solution was so ambitious that many were convinced it was destined to fail. In 1960, construction began on a project that would be named one of the Seven Engineering Wonders of the Modern World. Nearly 2,000 workers toiled on the Bay Bridge Tunnel.

In 1964 just 42 months after the launch date “ the end result was the world's largest bridge-tunnel complex that crossed over and under 17.6 miles of open waters. It entails more than 12 miles of low-level trestle, two mile-long underwater tunnels, two high-span bridges, almost two miles of causeway and four man-made islands. As if that wasn't enough, a second parallel span was completed in 1999.

Chesapeake Bay Bridge Tunnel is an adventure that every Bay explorer should take. It's a magnificent testament to mankind's ingenuity and determination to tame nature's aquatic challenges. With waves splashing just beyond your windows, the view is beyond compare of vessels ranging from sailboats to aircraft carriers. An added bonus: One island has a restaurant, gift shop and fishing pier where visitors can take time to experience this engineering wonder.

Chesapeake & Delaware Canal

Augustine Herman, a 17th-century Dutch mapmaker, was the first to note the thin strip of land separating the Chesapeake Bay's northern tip from the Delaware River. In 1788, Ben Franklin and his cronies also toyed with the project, but it got lost in the shuffle of launching a new nation.

Businessmen in Philadelphia and Baltimore saw the economic value of reducing the journey between their ports, so they lobbied Maryland, Delaware and Pennsylvania legislatures to turn the 14-mile stretch of land into a waterway. Their efforts paid off, and in 1802 the Chesapeake & Delaware Canal Co. was formed.  They conducted surveys, drew plans and began digging in 1804. Lack of funds caused several false starts, but by 1824 construction resumed in earnest. It wasn't easy going. Workers labored with pickaxes, shovels and rudimentary dredging machines through soggy marshlands and dense forests. Heavy winter rains turned solid ground into knee-deep mud pits. But with persistence, resourcefulness and tons of rocks and wood, the canal opened in 1829.

Only 10 feet deep and 66 feet wide, the channel used mules to tow ships through four locks that lifted water to higher levels with steam-operated waterwheels. By the early 1900s, the canal struggled to accommodate large vessels and heavy traffic, so the U.S. government bought it in 1919 and poured $2.5 million into expansions. Engineers removed the locks, dredged the channel down to sea level for smoother sailing, and built bridges overhead.

For decades, the Army Corp of Engineers widened and fortified the C&D Canal to keep pace with transportation needs. Today, the structure is 450 feet wide and 35 feet deep and brings 40 percent of all ship traffic into Baltimore.

Cruising through the busy canal is an unforgettable experience, because you share the journey with massive cruise ships, cargo vessels and tugboats pulling overloaded barges. Quaint towns and bustling dock bars line the shores. To get the full scoop on this amazing waterway, visit the C&D Canal Museum in Chesapeake City, MD.

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Hurricane Hunters

Hurricanes are nature’s grandest, most ferocious storms. They fascinate us, and they repel us. As a radio news and weather reporter in Miami for 30 years, my grandfather was obsessed with hurricanes. (Confession: I am, too.) Using colored pencils and a wooden ruler, he meticulously plotted their paths onto an enormous paper map tacked up on the wall of his study. It was a beautiful and mesmerizing record of these ferocious and complicated storms that somehow feel alive as they zigzag and wobble across the ocean like drunken sailors.

Science has improved dramatically since my grandfather’s era. A fleet of Earth- observing satellites providing real-time data now help thousands of scientists around the world answer three age-old questions: Where and when will the hurricane hit and how strong will it be? Modern forecasts are pretty accurate. Long gone is the day when a storm could sneak up and hit without any warning. Here are the stories of three men who helped pave the way.

Three Who Paved the Way for How We Track & Predict Hurricanes Today

Father Hurricane

When the regime of Queen Isabella II of Spain collapsed in 1868, many who supported her thought it wise to flee the country. Father Benito Viñes, a Jesuit priest and educator, was one of them. He emigrated to Cuba and found a position as director of the meteorological observatory in Havana. Shocked by the damage hurricanes regularly inflicted upon the island, he made it his mission to learn everything he could about them.

Within five years of arriving, Father Viñes knew more about hurricanes than any living person. He was the first to discover that the cloud pattern and the behavior of the wind well in advance of a storm could be used to track it accurately. Using this information, he designed the “Antilles cyclonoscope,” a kind of slide-rule that could estimate from a considerable distance the current position of a hurricane and calculate its likely path. Up until then, weather observers could tell when a hurricane was coming but not where it was going.

His first forecast was published in a Havana newspaper on September 11, 1875 — two days before an intense hurricane ravaged the southern coast of Cuba. Many lives were saved because of the timely warning. Throughout the 1880s he exchanged hurricane information with other weather observers across the Caribbean via telegraph. It was the first hurricane warning system and a model the United States. Weather Service later emulated it. Father Viñes was so well-respected that for a short time hurricanes were even called Viñesas and identified numerically. The pronunciation, however, was difficult for Americans, so the practice ceased. Father Viñes died in 1893.

The Aerial Acrobat

Len Povey

Len Povey was a self-taught pilot who flew with the new U.S. Army Air Service until 1922 when he left to pursue a more “colorful” career testing race planes, flying bootleg liquor and barnstorming over the Great Lakes as a headliner with a flying circus. His aerial acrobatics at the All-American Air Maneuvers show in Miami in 1934 caught the eye of a Cuban Air Force official who hired him to train Cuban pilots and serve as the personal pilot for Fulgencio Batista, the chief of the armed forces and later president and dictator of the island nation.

When Cuba’s Weather Service detected a storm intensifying several hundred miles east of the island in early September 1935, Len Povey volunteered to help pinpoint the location and movement of the storm. He jumped in his Curtiss Hawk II, an open cockpit biplane, and flew over the Straits of Florida where he located the hurricane farther north than predicted and moving northwestward toward the Florida Keys. The Cubans dispatched a warning, but it was too late. Later that same day, the storm roared ashore at Islamorada, FL, with winds of 200 m.p.h. and a 20-foot storm surge that drowned more than 400 people, mostly Army veterans who were building the Overseas Railroad.

Povey later joined the faculty at Embry-Riddle, a private Florida college focused on aviation and aerospace programs, where he was a tireless advocate for aerial hurricane patrols. However, the type of reconnaissance mission he envisioned didn’t happen until July 1943, when Air Force Colonel Joe Duckworth flew a plane directly into the eye of a hurricane churning toward Galveston, TX. Len Povey died in 1984. His obituary claimed he survived a mid-air collision and an encounter with a turkey buzzard that sheared off a portion of his plane’s wing.

The Data Cruncher

One of the most recognized voices on hurricanes in the late 20th century emanated ironically from a mile-high lab at Colorado State University. That voice was Dr. William Gray, a professor of tropical meteorology from 1961 until 2005.

Bill Gray grew up in Washington, DC, wanting to be a baseball player. He was a standout pitcher for George Washington University until he hurt his knee. During service in the Air Force, he turned to a career in climatology. He once told the Los Angeles Times he was inspired to study hurricanes after he flew a plane through one off the east coast of Florida in 1958.

Dr. Gray was an outlier when it came to hurricanes. He eschewed computer modeling, focusing instead on observational science: historical storm data, old maps featuring storm patterns, and statistics on wind speed, water temperatures and other meteorological factors. He was the first to determine that the intensity and frequency of storms in the Atlantic was cyclical and that likelihood of a hurricane reaching the East Coast of the United States depended on a variety of factors including the amount of rainfall in Africa and the impact of El Niño (the periodic warming of the Pacific Ocean that produces powerful winds that shear off the tops of storms developing in the Atlantic). In short, he figured out Mother Nature’s recipe for powerful storms.

In 1984 Dr. Gray unveiled the first Atlantic seasonal hurricane forecast and quickly became a hurricane superstar and media darling. He, however, considered his greatest legacy the students whom he taught and mentored, many of whom went on to become leaders in weather research and forecasting. He died in 2016.

Check out Marinalife's recent article about How Hurricanes Get Their Names.

Hurricane Tracking Apps for Your Phone

You don’t need all six of these apps, but we’re certain you’ll find one here that you like. All are available on Google Play and the Apple App Store.


Rain radar, storm tracker and severe weather warnings help you prepare for hurricane season, as well as storms and heavy rain. Monitor live radar updates, an hourly rain tracker, storm radar news, and local weather forecast on the go. Free. Available in English and 30 other languages.


Official data, custom graphics, updates and maps from National Hurricane Center (NHC) experts. Considered the grandparent of all hurricane trackers. Free. Available in English and French.


Reliable, real-time and hyperlocal forecasts combining data from 250,000+ personal weather stations and a proprietary forecast model provide an incredibly accurate local forecast. Interactive radar and customizable severe weather alerts. Free. Available in English and 30 other languages.


Previously called NOAA Radar, this is a good hurricane tracker app, because it lets you overlay rain, radar or satellite images on top of the tracker. This gives you a detailed look at what’s happening in the storm. Add multiple locations to the map to get alerted if you’re in the path of a hurricane. Free. Multiple languages. Paid upgrade packages available.


If you’re willing to spend some money on an app favored by weather nerds and professional storm chasers, then check out RadarScope. The learning curve is steeper than with others, but it features high-resolution radar data sourced from NOAA’s next generation radar and Doppler Weather Radar. Available in English, French, German and Spanish.


Monitor conditions in your area or throughout the storm track, prepare your family and home, find help and let others know you are safe. Free. Available in English and Spanish.

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How Hurricanes Get Their Names

Historically, hurricanes in the United States were referred to by their time period and/or geographic location, e.g., the Great Galveston Hurricane of 1900. In the West Indies, they were named after the particular saint’s day on which the hurricane occurred. A colorful Australian weatherman named Clement Wragge began assigning Greek and Roman mythological names to Pacific cyclones in the late 19th century. He later began naming them after politicians he particularly disliked.

During World War II, U.S. Air Force and Navy meteorologists plotting storms over the Pacific needed a better way to denote tropical cyclones while analyzing weather maps. Many began paying tribute to their wives and girlfriends back home by naming the cyclones after them. In 1954, the National Weather Bureau officially embraced the practice of giving hurricanes women’s names. Because America led the world in weather tracking technology, the practice was adopted elsewhere.

In response to pressure from women’s groups, the National Weather Service and the World Meteorological Association began using both men’s and women’s names starting in 1979. More recently, the lists of names, which are predetermined and rotate every six years, have been further diversified to reflect names used in the many regions where tropical cyclones strike. Names of devastating storms, such as Katrina in 2005, are permanently retired.

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The Fishy Side of Ocean City, MD

With its sandy beaches and boardwalk attractions, Ocean City is the quintessential family summer vacation destination. It’s also a popular spot for sport fishermen and boaters traveling up and down the East Coast. But it wasn’t always that way. 

Ocean City was established on a barrier island called Assateague that extended 60 miles from the Indian River Inlet in Delaware to Chincoteague, VA. The section of the island belonging to the State of Maryland had no outlet to the sea, and early visitors came to bathe in the surf and take in the fresh ocean breezes. These travelers arrived by ferry boat from the mainland until 1876 when a wooden trestle train bridge was built. 

In its younger days, Ocean City was half resort town and half fishing village. The fishing was “pound fishing,” a style I’d wager few people today have ever seen. It was practiced originally by Native Americans and became popular in the 19 century along the East Coast from Maritime Canada to the Carolinas.

Pound fisherman used wide nets attached to wooden poles to catch fish. They drove these tall poles into the ocean floor about a half mile from shore, creating permanent structures called pounds. When fish entered the open end of a pound, they were then corralled by the nets and couldn’t escape. 

With no passage into the Atlantic, crews of Ocean City fishermen needed to launch 40-foot boats from the beach directly into the ocean and row out to the pounds. To harvest the fish, the crew would remove the ends of the nets from the poles and pull them up by hand. The fish were then brought back to shore, carted across the island, packed in barrels of ice and shipped via railroad to fish markets in Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York.

It was laborious work, and for years local businessmen petitioned state and federal agencies to create a manmade inlet to connect the bay directly to more fertile fishing grounds farther off the coast.

A Fierce Storm Carves Out a New Inlet

In August of 1933, a hurricane came ashore in Norfolk, VA, and then tracked up the center of the Chesapeake Bay, bringing up to 10 inches of rain per day and flooding the back bays to the west of Ocean City. Oceanside, wind and waves destroyed homes, hotels and businesses on the town’s boardwalk. 

When the storm subsided, the railroad bridge and fish camps had been washed away, replaced by an inlet 50 feet wide and eight feet deep that formed when built-up water driven by high tides rushed east over the barrier island from the swollen back bays to the ocean. Mother Nature did what governments wouldn’t do, and it changed Ocean City forever.

It didn’t take long for officials to take advantage of this event and enlarge the inlet to ensure its permanence. As a result, a commercial harbor, marinas and docks began sprouting up around the inlet and across the bay on the mainland. Most fishing was commercial in those immediate post-hurricane years, but a few captains realized the recreational fishing potential in the shoals and fertile canyons offshore that were teaming with billfish and other species. During World War II, a lack of fuel and the presence of German U-Boats in the Atlantic virtually shut down offshore fishing. Things picked up after the war, and by the late 1950s and 1960s more and more fishermen were coming to Ocean City. 

But it was the white marlin that really put Ocean City on the sport fishing map. A challenging fish known for its beauty, the white marlin wows anglers with its speed and jumping antics. These fish travel in packs and are prevalent in Maryland waters in late summer and early fall. 

Sport fishermen have been chasing white marlins off the coast of Maryland since 1934 when President Franklin Roosevelt visited and caught two of the feisty billfish. To celebrate this exceptional fish and attract more attention to Ocean City, local fishermen launched the White Marlin Open in 1974. Fifty-seven boats entered that first year. By contrast, the 2021 Open drew 444 boats, more than 3,500 contestants – including NBA superstar Michael Jordan – and awarded $9.2 million dollars in prize money making Ocean City the undisputed “White Marlin Capital of the World.”

Ocean City today counts eight marinas, 20 fishing tournaments and numerous charter boats. According to the city council, boating and sportfishing are significant economic drivers bringing tens of millions of dollars annually to the local economy. 

So, whether you’re a hardcore sport fisherman, casual angler or a boater who simply enjoys a cocktail dockside at sunset, there’s something for everyone “Goin’ downy O, Hon!” as native Marylanders like to say about a visit to their beloved Ocean City.

Check Out Three World-Class OC Fishing Tournaments

Ocean City Tuna Tournament
July 8-10, 2022

Entering its 35th year, this has become the world’s largest tuna tournament with more than 100 participating boats and a record payout that eclipsed $1 million in 2021. 

White Marlin Open
August 8-12, 2022

First held in 1974, the WMO is inarguably the highlight of the Ocean City fishing tournament calendar. Now the biggest and richest billfish tournament in the world, the WMO drew 444 boats and 3,500+ contestants last year.

Poor Girls Open
August 17-20, 2022
Launched in 1994, this is the largest ladies-only billfish release tournament benefitting breast cancer research. Despite its charitable overtones, the tournament is all about the fishing, and the hundreds of boats and hundreds of competitors take it very seriously.

The Orange Crush: A Cocktail Born on the OC Docks

Orange Crush | Susan Elnicki Wade

The Orange Crush is a staple cocktail in most Maryland bars. It’s basically a screwdriver with a shot of triple sec and a splash of lemon-lime soda. The secret to a good one, though, is fresh-squeezed orange juice. And there’s no place better to try one than the Harborside Bar & Grill in Ocean City where the cocktail is said to have originated on a slow night in 1995 when a couple of bartenders were bored and playing around with a bottle of orange-flavored vodka.

Harborside is a wooden establishment whose backside opens onto the commercial harbor in West Ocean City. Gritty is the word that comes to mind. As you would expect, the sign out front boldly announces the home of the Orange Crush, as do newspaper articles framed on the walls and t-shirts for sale. Inside, people pound crabs and watch the Orioles play baseball. Ceiling fans whirl, and it smells of Old Bay and French fries. White lights strung across the ceiling add a festive touch. It doesn’t get more Maryland than that. 

To try your first Orange Crush, visit Harborside Bar & Grill, in Ocean City, MD, 410-213-1846.

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