History

Marine Visionaries that Shaped Modern Day Boating

Lessons Learned & Forecast for the Future

By
Carol
Bareuther

Twenty years ago, whether you were on land or sea, the new millennium was on everyone's mind, especially for these marine visionaries. Today, the computers that we feared would crash are now in the palms of our hands via iPhone and on our helms via nav stations and more. While the future is fickle to forecast, the past reads like an open book. It takes a true visionary to bridge this gap.

The following are seven marine industry veterans who have shown a keen knack for building these types of bridges. They've taken simple concepts and shown what can and could be done. What's more, these marine visionaries aren't all work and no play. Indeed, all are avid boaters themselves.

Lisa Almeida | Marine Visionaries | Marinalife

Lisa Almeida
Promoting Boating Club-Style

Say the word 'boat' and Lisa Almeida's eyes light up. Almeida, an owner and marketing director of the Venice, FL-headquartered Freedom Boat Club, started boating at age six weeks on her parents' power craft. By age 22, she purchased a Wellcraft outboard. Yet, it wasn't until after a 25-year, land-locked career in telecommunications marketing that boating turned from recreation to a vocation.

"When I started selling memberships in 2009, boat clubs were in a sad state," says Almeida, noting that today, Freedom is the oldest and largest boat club in North America with nearly 90 locations, 20,000-plus members and 2,200-strong fleet. "Dealers couldn't wrap their heads around the concept and thought clubs were competition." The public didn't understand what it was all about, and no one in the industry recognized clubs' contribution. But I knew in my gut that boat clubs were the answer to getting more people on the water.

Almeida is most proud of helping to earn boat clubs a seat at the industry's table via participating in major conferences hosted by organizations such as National Marine Manufacturers Association, Marine Retailers Association of the Americas and Association of Marina Industries.

Looking ahead, it's the shared economy trend, evident in the popularity of Airbnb and ride share like Uber, that will drive future growth of boat clubs exponentially, says Almeida. The key for the future, she adds, is to explain what a boat club is and what it's not. Plus, delivering on promises. It's sound advice from someone who enjoys two boats. Weekend trips on a 32' Monterey and a family watersports day aboard a 22' Sea Ray Sundeck are what keep Almeida's effervescent sparkle for boating afloat.

Carl Blackwell
Boating as Part of a Health Lifestyle

Carl Blackwell knows the cure for the stress of everyday life. In fact, Blackwell, senior VP and chief marketing officer at National Marine Manufacturers Association and president of Grow Boating, Inc. (better known as the Discover Boating campaign) has spent 17 years sharing this secret nationwide. The cure? Boating. Step off the dock, cast off and surround yourself with water. It's a later in life revelation for this Illinois-raised farm boy who swapped marketing beef to boats.

"There were a lot of parallels for me between promoting the beef industry and boating," says Blackwell. Both are nationwide. "Both are industries made up of small, often family-run, businesses. Both needed widespread public contributors for the biggest reach. For boating, it was recognizing the power of people, photography and boats, and using a relatively simple and inexpensive platform like Facebook. Everyone likes to share photos. In short, we grew from 30,000 to now nearly 800,000 followers and won a national award along the way."

Looking ahead, Blackwell sees ways to make boating accessible. One way: dealerships in marinas that offer daily rentals, fractional ownerships, new and used vessel sales, and concierge services. Another is putting rentals in the palm of the public's hand via apps. This extends to businesses too, using apps like Open Table to rent a boat akin to a restaurant as a meeting venue. Blackwell dreams of these ideas when aboard his 35-foot sports cruiser on Lake Michigan with family and friends, taking time to de-stress.

Jack Brewer
The Timeless Value of Service

Twenty years ago was a great time in the boating industry, says Jack Brewer, who founded Brewer Yacht Yards in Mamaroneck, NY. This was after the luxury tax upheaval and before the recession, and Brewer rented slips as fast as he built them. Even when the economy tanked, Brewer avoided layoffs while assembling a group of marinas that spanned from New York to Maine a career achievement of which he is most proud. The secret to Brewer's success is simple and timeless. In fact, it's as relevant today and tomorrow as it was in 1879 when his great grandfather supplied boaters from his hardware store, and in the 1950s when his father anticipated customer needs at the 16-slip marina he bought next to the family's hardware business.

"Service was non-existent when I started running the marina in 1964," says Brewer, who sold his company in 2017 to Safe Harbor and now sits on the board of the Dallas-based largest U.S. marina owner and operator. "Service is how we first paid the mortgage. Detailing them, for example, when they came out of winter storage. In the recession, people kept the boats they had rather than buying new, and service became more important. Boaters want to jump in and go even more with today's time constraints, and I don't see that changing."

Two decades from now, Brewer foresees a growing number of 40- to 50-footers with outboards, more rack storage and more corporations owning marinas. To the next generation, he says, love the business and have fun.' He practices what he preaches, enjoying nothing more than dropping anchor on his MJM 34z Downeast and swimming with his grandchildren in Hamburg Cove, CT.

Duane Kuck
Boats as Life's Best Memory Makers

A boat isn't just a boat for Duane Kuck, president and CEO of Orlando, FL-headquartered Regal Marine Industries. The same held true for Kuck's parents, who cruised with him and his two siblings on the lakes near Whitewater, WI, before moving south to establish Regal 50 years ago. Fast forward, with the third generation of Kucks onboard, the sentiment is the same. That is, boats are products that offer a wonderful way to connect relationships and add value to people's lives.

"Yes, you need to make a profit. However, what's great about our industry, and it's not just a marketing slogan, is putting people first. It's focusing on relationships, from our team here at Regal, to our dealers, our owners, and their family and friends, it's all about what a boat enables a family to do. That vision is what gives us the grit, defined as passion plus perseverance, to face inevitable challenges. For us, this is remaining true to our mission, continuing as a private company in a time of increased consolidations, and focusing on long-term rather than short-term goals over the next 50 years," says Kuck.

Technology is a great example of how Regal has combined tradition and trends. Kuck tests new products himself against the benchmark of making boating easy and enjoyable. For example, gyro stabilizers that help prevent sea sickness, joystick controls that enable boaters to dock, and an auto-routing chartplotter that Kuck installed on his new Regal 42 Flybridge for a first-time cruise around New York's Thousand Islands last summer. Exploring, he says, is his favorite way to spend a day on the water. It's also how Kuck employs his own crafts to make life's fondest memories.

Bob Denison
Bringing Yacht Sales into the 21st Century

Bob Denison was a student at Florida's University of Miami Business School in 1999. His biggest worry? Convincing girls he was cool. Two years later, after brief stints in E-commerce and aerospace, which provided him with Internet, marketing and management skills, Denison founded Denison Yacht Sales. On one hand, he saw this career move as a family obligation. His grandfather, Frank Denison, started Broward Marine and his father, Kit, launched Denison Marine. On the other hand, Denison grew up with a deep passion for the industry and saw opportunity on the horizon.

"Let's be honest, lots of people think our industry is full of sharks and cut-throats. We're always delighted to prove that theory false," says Denison, who also founded Denison's Super Yacht Division in 2014. "Providing a great client experience is what really matters. That usually means sacrificing something to make it happen. In our industry, it means your time. To make a difference, you must be willing to wake-up early, sweat a lot, give up Saturday afternoons to show boats, and always hit the green 'answer' button on your phone."

In the future, Denison hopes technology will make buying and selling yachts better, simpler and definitely cooler. I'm rooting for more brokers to leverage technology to take better care of their clients, he says. People who buy boats are also buying cars and homes and sadly receiving a much better experience in those arenas. Let's hope we catch up by the year 2039.

Marcia Kull
Launching Women on the Water and in Industry Boardrooms

Boating was simpler, significantly less costly due to less technology, and a universal activity for people from all walks of life back in 1999, says marine manufacturing industry veteran, Marcia Kull. Yet Kull, who was born into a boating family and has held legal and operational leadership positions for more than 20 years with big name companies like Genmar, Volvo Penta and Torqeedo, admits that boating back then was still mostly a man's world. Not anymore.

"The creation and introduction of the Women Making Waves initiative at Genmar is my favorite accomplishment," says Kull, president of marine business consultancy, SheGoes, Inc., in Minneapolis. In 2003, "I was the only woman on the executive team. Genmar's management decided they needed to expand their customer base. A logical focus was women. Extensive market research revealed two points. First, women wanted lessons in the skills that often intimidate all boaters backing up a trailer, launching and loading, and driving and trimming. Secondly, they wanted these lessons in the company of other women. From this, we developed a turnkey kit that was available to all 2,000+ Genmar dealers to conduct hands-on women's boating classes at their local public boat ramp."

Women still make up only about 10 to 15% of new boat owners by warranty registration data, according to Kull, who today enjoys her time on the water self-propelled on a surfboard, SUP or kayak. Looking ahead, she'd like to see more women in design, construction, marketing and selling to prospective boat owners.To those following her, Kull throws down this gauntlet: I've always believed that boats need a head design that allows women to use it comfortably and inconspicuously. When the bladder problem is solved, women will spend more time boating. It's time for a great female designer to tackle this issue.

David Rockefeller Jr. | Marine Visionaries | Marinalife

David Rockefeller, Jr.
Protecting the Oceans

Years ago, many equated marine conservation to saving the whales. In the early 1990s, the Atlantic cod fishery collapsed, and a series of reports came out showing that similar downfalls were happening around the world. The U.S. Sustainable Fisheries Act in 1996 stemmed the tide. Overfished stocks in federally managed fisheries dropped two-thirds since 2000 when rebuilt fisheries soared from 0 to 45. In this era David Rockefeller Jr., a keen sailor, environmentalist and philanthropist, realized many sailing and boating friends who deeply loved the oceans were unaware of the issues and not involved in marine conservation.

"I've always been passionate about the sea, says Rockefeller, who owns an IMX 45 racer-cruiser, International One Design day sailer, and MJM 38' powerboat, on which he enjoys cruising the Maine coast. Then, I served as a member of the Pew Oceans Commission and learned from leading scientists, policymakers and others about the issues facing our oceans. The commission issued a comprehensive report in 2003 and outlined a proposed national agenda for protecting and restoring the seas. I realized that we needed to get more sailors, like me, activated and passionate about making this agenda a reality. With David Treadway in 2006, I co-founded Sailors for the Sea, which today is part of Oceana, the largest international organization dedicated to ocean conservation."

Going forward, Rockefeller hopes the boating community will be a true force for marine conservation. He recommends to his boating friends to directly connect to policy campaigns that impact boating, such as marine plastic pollution and oil spills. Because they are so intimately connected to the water, boaters are essential advocates for the seas and can make a huge difference.

Related Articles
Women Circumnavigators
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To sail around the world is an ultimate endurance test and a dream that has for centuries tempted explorers, adventurers and those who love sailing. Ferdinand Magellan was the first maritime globe trotter, and he gets all the credit — even though he didn’t finish the journey.

During a skirmish with natives in the Philippines, he was shot by a poisoned arrow and left by his crew to die. His navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano then captained the Victoria, a 31-foot, 85-ton ship with a crew of 45 men back to Spain in September of 1522, three years after Magellan led his flotilla of five ships westward across the Atlantic Ocean in search of a new route to the Spice Islands.

In September of 2022, Ellen Magellan set off down the Trinity River in East Texas in the Evelyn Mae, a 22-foot, carbon fiber rowboat outfitted with two cabins and a solar power generator, on her way to the Gulf of Mexico in the first leg of an audacious, seven-year attempt to row a boat solo around the world. At the age of 27, Ellen seeks to raise awareness of the state of the ocean and promote the notion that it’s okay for women to travel alone and experience life-changing experiences.

Jeanne Baret | Wikimedia Commons

Will Magellan complete her journey? Who knows. But, inspired by her passion, Marinalife presents the stories of eight trailblazing women who circumnavigated the globe via boat in their own ways, taking on a challenge historically reserved mainly for men.

JEANNE BARET of France became the first woman to circumnavigate the globe, albeit without knowing it. Jeanne disguised herself as a man to illegally accompany her botanist lover as part of a French Navy scientific voyage looking for exotic plants. Women weren’t allowed on Navy boats. In Brazil, it is believed she discovered a new exotic flowering vine and named it Bougainvillea in honor of Louis de Bougainville, who headed the around-the-world expedition. Her identity was eventually discovered in Tahiti where some historians claim she was sexually assaulted by her crewmates. Baret and her lover Philibert Commerson were later left behind in Mauritius in the Indian Ocean as the expedition continued. On Mauritius, they befriended the governor, an avid botanist, and studied the flora of the region. When Commerson died, Baret married a Frenchman and together they returned unceremoniously to France three years after Baret’s journey began, thus completing the around the world journey. Bougainville later arranged for Jeanne to receive a Navy pension in recognition of her contributions on the exhibition.

NELLIE BLY was an American investigative journalist widely known for going undercover to report the terrible conditions of a New York City insane asylum. In 1888, she began what would be a 72-day trip around the world via steamship, horse and railroad to emulate Jules Verne’s popular fictional character Phileas Fogg in Around the World in Eighty Days. She was the first person to turn the fiction into fact. New York World Publisher Joseph Pulitzer initially was against it, believing only a man could make such a trip. He eventually acquiesced and published daily updates on her journey. The entire nation followed along as Nellie raced not only time, but also another woman. Elizabeth Bisland, representing Cosmopolitan Magazine, finished her circumnavigation four days after Nellie triumphantly arrived in New York. Bly was honored with a U.S. postage stamp in 2002.

KRYSTYNA CHOJNOWSKA-LISKIEWICZ, an experienced Polish sailor and ship construction engineer, became the first woman to sail around the world solo. Krystyna was selected for the challenge in a competition held by Poland’s Sailing Association to promote Polish sailing during the United Nation’s International Women’s Year. Her husband, also a shipbuilder, custom- designed the Mazurek, a 9.5-meters long by 3-meters wide boat for Krystyna. During her voyage, Krystyna was stopped and suspected of drug trafficking, overcame storms, and battled not only kidney stones, but New Zealand sailor Naomi James, who was also trying to become the first woman to circumnavigate the globe by herself. Krystyna beat Naomi by 39 days. Now retired, Krystyna continues to sail and encourages women to take up the sport.

Tracy Edwards and The Maiden Crew and RJA Stewardesses with Beefeater Trophy-source-Wikimedia Commons

TRACY EDWARDS was expelled from school in Britain at the age of 15 and began traveling the world. She worked on charter yachts in Greece and learned how to sail, eventually taking part in the prestigious Whitbread Round the World Race as a cook in 1985. Four years later, Edwards skippered the first all-female crew in the Whitbread Race. Edwards’ Maiden, a restored second-hand racing yacht, went on to win two of the six legs of the race and finished second overall. The media covering the race was often derogatory. One sailing journalist described the Maiden as a “tin full of tarts.” Nevertheless, Tracy and her crew garnered worldwide praise, and she was awarded Britain’s Yachtsman of the Year Trophy and the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (MBE). Today, she works with charities around the world to break down barriers preventing girls from getting an education.

Laura Dekker | Savyasachi via Wikimedia Commons

DAME ELLEN MACARTHUR, a British sailor, broke the world record for the fastest solo circumnavigation of the globe in 2005 on her first attempt. Her time of 71 days, 14 hours, 18 minutes and 33 seconds beat the previous record by more than a day. Shortly after her return to England amid a flotilla of boats and cheering crowds, MacArthur became the youngest woman in modern history to be made Dame Commander of the British Empire (DBE). In 2009, she announced her retirement from competitive sailing and subsequently launched a foundation promoting the concept of the “circular economy” — rethinking how to design, make, and use the things people need, from food to clothing, to transform our economy into one where waste is eliminated, resources are circulated, and nature is regenerated.

LAURA DEKKER, a New Zealand- born Dutch sailor became at age 16 the youngest person to circumnavigate the globe single handedly. Because her parents were divorced, Dutch courts stepped in to prevent her departure earlier at age 15 because national law prohibited a captain of a boat younger than 16 to sail a boat longer than 7 meters in Dutch waters. Dekker, who was born to parents living on a boat off the coast of New Zealand, first sailed solo at the age of six and soon thereafter began dreaming of sailing around the world. When she finally won the right to sail, she launched from St. Maarten in her 38’ boat Guppy. In 2018, she founded the Laura Dekker World Sailing Foundation to provide programs for young people to develop life skills such as teamwork, self-confidence, responsibility and leadership.

Jeanne Socrates | Ennya2000 from Flickr

British sailor JEANNE SOCRATES became the oldest woman at age 77 to single-handedly sail around the world, non-stop and without outside assistance. It was her third attempt. When she departed Victoria, British Columbia, aboard her 38’ boat Nereida, she was still recovering from a broken neck and broken ribs from a fall in a previous attempt. Socrates accomplished the feat in 11 months, sailing around all five great capes (Cape Horn, Cape of Good Hope, Cape Leeuwin, South East Cape of Tasmania and the South Cape of Stewart Island) and dodging three cyclones. In honor of her feat, the Greater Victoria Harbour Authority in Victoria named the inner harbor commercial dock the Jean Socrates Dock. Socrates is still sailing today.

Read More
Hurricane Hunters
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Hurricanes are nature’s grandest, most ferocious storms. They fascinate us, and they repel us. As a radio news and weather reporter in Miami for 30 years, my grandfather was obsessed with hurricanes. (Confession: I am, too.) Using colored pencils and a wooden ruler, he meticulously plotted their paths onto an enormous paper map tacked up on the wall of his study. It was a beautiful and mesmerizing record of these ferocious and complicated storms that somehow feel alive as they zigzag and wobble across the ocean like drunken sailors.

Science has improved dramatically since my grandfather’s era. A fleet of Earth- observing satellites providing real-time data now help thousands of scientists around the world answer three age-old questions: Where and when will the hurricane hit and how strong will it be? Modern forecasts are pretty accurate. Long gone is the day when a storm could sneak up and hit without any warning. Here are the stories of three men who helped pave the way.

Three Who Paved the Way for How We Track & Predict Hurricanes Today

Father Hurricane

When the regime of Queen Isabella II of Spain collapsed in 1868, many who supported her thought it wise to flee the country. Father Benito Viñes, a Jesuit priest and educator, was one of them. He emigrated to Cuba and found a position as director of the meteorological observatory in Havana. Shocked by the damage hurricanes regularly inflicted upon the island, he made it his mission to learn everything he could about them.

Within five years of arriving, Father Viñes knew more about hurricanes than any living person. He was the first to discover that the cloud pattern and the behavior of the wind well in advance of a storm could be used to track it accurately. Using this information, he designed the “Antilles cyclonoscope,” a kind of slide-rule that could estimate from a considerable distance the current position of a hurricane and calculate its likely path. Up until then, weather observers could tell when a hurricane was coming but not where it was going.

His first forecast was published in a Havana newspaper on September 11, 1875 — two days before an intense hurricane ravaged the southern coast of Cuba. Many lives were saved because of the timely warning. Throughout the 1880s he exchanged hurricane information with other weather observers across the Caribbean via telegraph. It was the first hurricane warning system and a model the United States. Weather Service later emulated it. Father Viñes was so well-respected that for a short time hurricanes were even called Viñesas and identified numerically. The pronunciation, however, was difficult for Americans, so the practice ceased. Father Viñes died in 1893.

The Aerial Acrobat

Len Povey

Len Povey was a self-taught pilot who flew with the new U.S. Army Air Service until 1922 when he left to pursue a more “colorful” career testing race planes, flying bootleg liquor and barnstorming over the Great Lakes as a headliner with a flying circus. His aerial acrobatics at the All-American Air Maneuvers show in Miami in 1934 caught the eye of a Cuban Air Force official who hired him to train Cuban pilots and serve as the personal pilot for Fulgencio Batista, the chief of the armed forces and later president and dictator of the island nation.

When Cuba’s Weather Service detected a storm intensifying several hundred miles east of the island in early September 1935, Len Povey volunteered to help pinpoint the location and movement of the storm. He jumped in his Curtiss Hawk II, an open cockpit biplane, and flew over the Straits of Florida where he located the hurricane farther north than predicted and moving northwestward toward the Florida Keys. The Cubans dispatched a warning, but it was too late. Later that same day, the storm roared ashore at Islamorada, FL, with winds of 200 m.p.h. and a 20-foot storm surge that drowned more than 400 people, mostly Army veterans who were building the Overseas Railroad.

Povey later joined the faculty at Embry-Riddle, a private Florida college focused on aviation and aerospace programs, where he was a tireless advocate for aerial hurricane patrols. However, the type of reconnaissance mission he envisioned didn’t happen until July 1943, when Air Force Colonel Joe Duckworth flew a plane directly into the eye of a hurricane churning toward Galveston, TX. Len Povey died in 1984. His obituary claimed he survived a mid-air collision and an encounter with a turkey buzzard that sheared off a portion of his plane’s wing.

The Data Cruncher

One of the most recognized voices on hurricanes in the late 20th century emanated ironically from a mile-high lab at Colorado State University. That voice was Dr. William Gray, a professor of tropical meteorology from 1961 until 2005.

Bill Gray grew up in Washington, DC, wanting to be a baseball player. He was a standout pitcher for George Washington University until he hurt his knee. During service in the Air Force, he turned to a career in climatology. He once told the Los Angeles Times he was inspired to study hurricanes after he flew a plane through one off the east coast of Florida in 1958.

Dr. Gray was an outlier when it came to hurricanes. He eschewed computer modeling, focusing instead on observational science: historical storm data, old maps featuring storm patterns, and statistics on wind speed, water temperatures and other meteorological factors. He was the first to determine that the intensity and frequency of storms in the Atlantic was cyclical and that likelihood of a hurricane reaching the East Coast of the United States depended on a variety of factors including the amount of rainfall in Africa and the impact of El Niño (the periodic warming of the Pacific Ocean that produces powerful winds that shear off the tops of storms developing in the Atlantic). In short, he figured out Mother Nature’s recipe for powerful storms.

In 1984 Dr. Gray unveiled the first Atlantic seasonal hurricane forecast and quickly became a hurricane superstar and media darling. He, however, considered his greatest legacy the students whom he taught and mentored, many of whom went on to become leaders in weather research and forecasting. He died in 2016.

Check out Marinalife's recent article about How Hurricanes Get Their Names.

Hurricane Tracking Apps for Your Phone

You don’t need all six of these apps, but we’re certain you’ll find one here that you like. All are available on Google Play and the Apple App Store.

THE WEATHER CHANNEL

Rain radar, storm tracker and severe weather warnings help you prepare for hurricane season, as well as storms and heavy rain. Monitor live radar updates, an hourly rain tracker, storm radar news, and local weather forecast on the go. Free. Available in English and 30 other languages.

NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER DATA

Official data, custom graphics, updates and maps from National Hurricane Center (NHC) experts. Considered the grandparent of all hurricane trackers. Free. Available in English and French.

WEATHER UNDERGROUND

Reliable, real-time and hyperlocal forecasts combining data from 250,000+ personal weather stations and a proprietary forecast model provide an incredibly accurate local forecast. Interactive radar and customizable severe weather alerts. Free. Available in English and 30 other languages.

CLIME

Previously called NOAA Radar, this is a good hurricane tracker app, because it lets you overlay rain, radar or satellite images on top of the tracker. This gives you a detailed look at what’s happening in the storm. Add multiple locations to the map to get alerted if you’re in the path of a hurricane. Free. Multiple languages. Paid upgrade packages available.

RADARSCOPE

If you’re willing to spend some money on an app favored by weather nerds and professional storm chasers, then check out RadarScope. The learning curve is steeper than with others, but it features high-resolution radar data sourced from NOAA’s next generation radar and Doppler Weather Radar. Available in English, French, German and Spanish.

HURRICANE – AMERICAN RED CROSS

Monitor conditions in your area or throughout the storm track, prepare your family and home, find help and let others know you are safe. Free. Available in English and Spanish.

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How Hurricanes Get Their Names
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Historically, hurricanes in the United States were referred to by their time period and/or geographic location, e.g., the Great Galveston Hurricane of 1900. In the West Indies, they were named after the particular saint’s day on which the hurricane occurred. A colorful Australian weatherman named Clement Wragge began assigning Greek and Roman mythological names to Pacific cyclones in the late 19th century. He later began naming them after politicians he particularly disliked.

During World War II, U.S. Air Force and Navy meteorologists plotting storms over the Pacific needed a better way to denote tropical cyclones while analyzing weather maps. Many began paying tribute to their wives and girlfriends back home by naming the cyclones after them. In 1954, the National Weather Bureau officially embraced the practice of giving hurricanes women’s names. Because America led the world in weather tracking technology, the practice was adopted elsewhere.

In response to pressure from women’s groups, the National Weather Service and the World Meteorological Association began using both men’s and women’s names starting in 1979. More recently, the lists of names, which are predetermined and rotate every six years, have been further diversified to reflect names used in the many regions where tropical cyclones strike. Names of devastating storms, such as Katrina in 2005, are permanently retired.

Read More

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